Conflict-of-Interest Statement

Conflict of interest can be either financial or non-financial. Authors submitting to USP journals are required to declare if they have any conflict of interest which may result in the data written in their article to be influenced by any personal or financial relationship with other people or organizations.

Financial Conflict of Interest include (but not limited to):

  • Receiving reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of the article, either now or in the future.
  • Holding stocks or shares in an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of the article, either now or in the future.
  • Holding, or currently applying for, patents relating to the content of the manuscript.
  • Receiving reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an organization that holds or has applied for patents relating to the content of the manuscript.

Non-Financial Conflict of Interest include (but not limited to):

  • political
  • personal
  • religious
  • ideological
  • academic
  • intellectual competing interests

Authors are required to declare both financial and/or non-financial conflict of interest in order to prevent any embarrassment or accusations of wrong-doing if they were to be made public after the publication of their manuscript. If there are no conflict of interest present, authors are required to include a statement declaring that there are no conflict of interest.

Reviewers are required to declare conflict of interest that might be relevant to them in the contents of the manuscript (e.g reviewer might be working in the organization that funds the research in the manuscript), and to inform the Editor in Chief that they might not be suitable for reviewing the paper.

Editorial Board is expected to (1) present unbiased, independent, and professional advice to the editor-in-chief, (2) maintain confidentiality about editorial board activities and discussion, and (3) sign a disclosure form to affirm that he or she has read, understands, and agrees to abide by the conflict of interest policy and to disclose any known conflicts or to state that no conflicts exist at the time. Conflicts of interest must be disclosed to the editor-in-chief who will determine how to manage, reduce, or eliminate the conflict.